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IT solutions provider singapore, The instructions that form a particular program are stored within the primary storage, then brought into the central processing unit and executed. Conceptually, instructions are brought in and executed one at a time, although modern systems overlap the execution of instructions to some extent. Instructions must be in primary storage in order to be executed. The control unit interprets each instruction and determines the appropriate course of action.

IT solutions provider singapore Each instruction is designed to perform a simple task. Instructions exist to perform basic arithmetic, to move data from one place in the computer to another, to perform I/O, and to accomplish many other tasks. The computer’s power comes from the ability to execute these simple instructions at extremely high speeds, measured in millions or billions or trillions of instructions executed per second. As you are already aware, it is necessary to translate high-level language programs into the language of the machine for execution of the program to take place. It may require tens or even hundreds of individual machine instructions to form the machine language equivalent of a single high-level language statement.

Program instructions are normally executed sequentially, unless an instruction itself tells the computer to change the order of processing. The instruction set used with a particular CPU is part of the design of the CPU and cannot normally be executed on a different type of CPU unless the different CPU was designed to be instruction set compatible. However, as you shall see, most instruction sets perform similar types of operations. As a result, it is possible to write programs that will emulate the instruction set from one computer on a computer with a different instruction set, although a program written for the original machine may execute slowly on the machine with the emulator.

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IT solutions provider singapore There are two major categories of software: system software and application software. System software helps you to manage your files, to load and execute programs, and to accept your commands from the mouse and keyboard. The system software programs that manage the computer are collectively known as an operating system, and differ from the application programs, such as Microsoft Word, or Firefox, or the programs that you write, that you normally run to get your work done. Windows and Linux are the best known examples of an operating system. Others include Unix, Mac OS X, Sun Solaris, and IBM z/OS

IT solutions provider singapore The operating system is an essential part of the computer system. Like the hardware, it is made up of many components. A simplified representation of an operating system is shown in Figure 1.9. The most obvious element is the user interface that allows you to execute programs, enter commands, and manipulate files. The user interface accepts input from a

IT solutions provider singapore The data that is manipulated by these instructions is also stored in memory while being processed. The idea that the program instructions and data are both stored in memory while being processed is known as the stored program concept. This important concept is attributed primarily to John von Neumann, a famous computer scientist. It forms the basis for the computer architecture that is standard to nearly every existing computer

IT solutions provider singapore In addition to the hardware requirement, your computer system also requires software. Software consists of the programs that tell the computer what to do. To do useful work, your system must execute instructions from some program

keyboard and, in most modern systems, a mouse, touch screen, or other pointing device. The user interface also does output presentation on the display. On some systems, the output display might IT solutions provider singapore be simple text, but more likely the display includes a graphical user interface with a windowing system, and various gadgets for manipulating the windows

The operating system’s application program interface (API), acts as an interface for application programs and utilities to access the internal services provided by the operating system. These include file services, I/O services, data communication services, user interface services, program execution services, and more

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IT solutions provider singapore Many of the internal services are provided by the kernel module, which contains the most important operating system processing functions. The remaining services are provided by other modules that are controlled by the kernel. The kernel manages memory by locating and allocating space to programs that need it, schedules time for each application to execute, provides communication between programs that are being executed, manages and arranges services and resources that are provided by other modules, and provides security

The file management system allocates and manages secondary storage space and translates file requests from their name-based form into specific I/O requests. The actual storage and retrieval of the files is performed by the I/O drivers that comprise the I/O component. Each I/O driver controls one or more hardware devices of similar type.

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IT solutions provider singapore The network module controls interactions between the computer system and the network(s) to which it is attached.

IT solutions provider singapore The operating system software has nearly always been stored on a hard disk, but on some smaller systems, especially lightweight laptops and embedded systems such as cell phones and iPods, a solid state disk or SD card may be used instead. On a few systems the operating system is actually provided as a network service when the system is turned on. In either case, the bootstrap or IPL (Initial Program Load) program in the operating system is stored within the computer using a type of memory known as ROM, or read-only memory. The bootstrap program provides the tools to test the system and to load the remainder of the operating system from the disk or network. Although the physical medium where the software is stored can be touched, the software itself is considered intangible.